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Manganin is the trademarked name for an alloy that consists of three metallic elements – Copper, Nickel and Manganese. This alloy is useful in various industries. Read on to learn more about the composition, properties and uses of this material.

History of Manganin

Edward Weston, an American chemist, was the first person to discover “Manganin” in 1892, while working on the improvement of another metallic alloy. This alloy, which was previously known as “Alloy No. 2”, was discovered by Weston who renamed it as “Constantan”.

Composition of Manganin

This metal alloy consists of the following metals in the following proportions:

  • Copper (Cu): 86%
  • Manganese (Mn): 12%
  • Nickel (Ni): 2%

Chemical Formula of Manganin

The chemical formula of this substance is CuMnNi. It consists of the formulas of all the constituent metals, namely CU for Copper, Mn for Manganese and Ni for Nickel.

Chemical Structure of Manganin

Properties of Manganin

Following are some of the basic properties of this alloy:

  • It has the formula weight (sum of the molecular masses of the atoms in the formula) of 177.18 g/mole.
  • This alloy has a low temperature coefficient of resistance (relative change of the physical properties of a substance with 1 K temperature change).
  • The resistivity of this resistance alloy is 4.55×10-5 ohm centimeters.
  • It is electrically conductive.
  • It has a melting point of 960 °C.
  • The tensile strength of this substance ranges between 300-600 MPa.
  • The electrical resistivity of this alloy varies between 43 and 48 µOhmcm.
  • The density of this alloy is 8.4 g/cm3.
  • It has a specific gravity of 8.5.
  • Its electrical resistance is found to be constant over a range of temperatures.

Uses of Manganin

Manganin has been used for different industrial purposes from the moment of its discovery. The properties of this material make it most efficient for certain applications. It is widely used in industries for manufacturing various substances like:


The wire and foil of this material are mainly used to manufacture various resistors – mainly ammeter shunts. Shunt refers to a device that controls the passage of electric current in different points of a circuit. This metal alloy has very low temperature coefficient of resistance. It also has long term stability. These properties make it very useful to be used for making shunts.

A coil of this substance is usually 150 mm wide and 0.025 mm thick.


This substance has a low sensitivity to strain (Deformation of a substance due to the stress or strain applied to it) and a high sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure (the pressure applied by a fluid at the state of equilibrium as a result of gravitational force). Due to this reason, it is very useful in gauges to study High-Pressure Shock Waves (an energy carrying wave originated from a variety of mediums like gas, liquid, solid and also through various fields under a high-pressure).

Manganin gauges are extensively used in high-pressure shock wave studies that range from 1 – >400 kilobars (1 bar = 100 000 N/m2 or 14.5 psi). The gauge is bonded in mainstream applications between two flat polymer plates or metallic plates.

Manganin-Constantan Thermocouples are more efficient than Copper-Constantan Thermocouples in the thermometry (temperature measurement) units of Commercial Ultrasound Hyperthermia Systems.

Manganin wire is also seen to be used as an electrical conductor in cryogenic systems. Its use minimizes transfer of heat between points that require electrical connections.







Actinomycin D

Actinomycin D is the most significant polypeptide antibiotic among all actinomycins. All these polypeptide antibiotics are isolated from soil-bacteria belonging to the Streptomyces genus. This material is generically known as dactinomycin.

Identification of Actinomycin D

CAS number: 50-76-0

ATC code: L01DA01

PubChem: CID 2019

DrugBank: APRD00124

ChemSpider: 10482167


ChEBI: CHEBI: 27666


History of Actinomycin D

Selman Waksman was the first person to isolate this antibiotic along with his co-worker H. B. Woodruff in 1940. US FDA first approved this compound on December 10, 1964. In the same year, it was launched under the trade name of Cosmegen by Merck, Sharpe and Dohme.

Actinomycin D Picture
Actinomycin D

Picture 1 – Actinomycin D

Synonyms for Actinomycin D

The synonyms for this polypeptide antibiotic are 2- Amino- 4, 6- dimethyl- 3- oxo- 3H- phenoxazine- 1, 9-dicarboxylic acid bis- [(5, 12- diisopropyl- 9, 13, 16-trimethyl- 4, 7, 11, 14, 17-pentaoxo- hexadecahydro- 10- oxa- 3a, 6, 13, 16- tetraaza- cyclopentacyclohexadecen- 8- yl)- amide]

Mechanism of Actinomycin D

The main use of this antibiotic is as an investigative tool for the purpose of inhibiting transcription in cell biology. Actinomycin D binds the DNA at the transcription initiation complex and prevents any elongation by RNA polymerase. It can interfere with DNA replication as it is able to bind DNA duplexes. However, other chemicals like hydroxyurea can function better as DNA synthesis inhibitor in laboratories.

Chemical Formula of Actinomycin D

The chemical formula used to denote this material is C62H86N12O16.

Properties of Actinomycin D

Appearance: It is a bright red or orange crystalline powder.

Molecular Mass: The molecular mass of this material is 1255.42 g/mol.

Solubility: The solubility of Actinomycin D is 1 g/ 25 ml at 10 °C temperature. It is mainly soluble in methanol, ethanol, DMF and DMSO but sparingly soluble in water.

Melting Point: It decomposes at 247 °C temperature.

Structure of Actinomycin D

Here is the structure of this crystalline material.

Uses of Actinomycin D

This polypeptide antibiotic is used for various clinical and research purposes.

Clinical Uses

As Chemotherapy: This relatively older chemotherapy drug has been used for this purpose for many years. Cosmegen is a clear yellow liquid which is administered intravenously. This drug is commonly used for the treatments of various types of cancers such as gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, Wilms’ tumor and rhabdomyosarcoma.

As an Antibiotic: Actinomycin D was the first antibiotic proved to have anti-cancer activity. Earlier it was used as an anti-cancer antibiotic. However, its high toxicity levels have prevented this use at present times. This toxic material is damaging genetic materials.

Research Use

7-Aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD) is the fluorescent derivative of Actinomycin D. Both these materials are widely used as stains in various flow cytometry and microscopy applications. Both these compounds have an affinity for GC-rich DNA regions which makes them highly useful as DNA markers. 7- Aminoactinomycin D can be used for determining apoptosis (self killing of the cells) as it can bind to single stranded DNA. It is also useful for distinguishing between live cells and dead ones.

Actinomycin D is the most important actinomycin with various uses. It has been used for chemotherapy for a very long time. However, its toxic properties prevent it from being used for some clinical purposes.






Lindlar Catalyst

A catalyst is a substance which alters or accelerates the rate of any chemical reaction without itself undergoing any change. Normally a catalyst is used in smaller amounts compared to the reactants or participants in the reaction.

Lindlar catalyst is a heterogenous catalyst that consists of palladium deposited on calcium carbonate and treated with various forms of lead. A heterogenous catalyst is a catalyst which is always in a different phase or state (solid, liquid or gas solution) with that of the reactants.

The name “Lindlar” has been given after its inventor Herbert Lindlar. The addition of lead is done in order to deactivate the palladium at certain sites. This is often denoted as “poisoned catalyst” due to the presence of lead. A catalyst becomes poisonous when its effectiveness starts diminishing in the presence of another chemical substance which is called as catalyst poison.

Various catalyst poisons like lead acetate and lead oxide are used to poison the palladium. Usually the palladium content is only 5% of the total weight of the catalyst. The catalyst is used for hydrogenation of alkynes to alkenes.

Formula of Lindlar Catalyst


Structure of Lindlar Catalyst

Reduction of phenylacetylene to styrene

Properties of Lindlar Catalyst

Specific surface area- 150-260 m2/g

Impurity < 0.5%

Water content< 5%

pH- 8

Preparation of Lindlar Catalyst

Normally it’s prepared by reduction of palladium chloride in a mixture of calcium carbonate followed by addition of lead acetate. Finally a catalyst is obtained with a large surface area which increases its reactivity. As the catalyst is used for reduction of alkynes to alkenes, further reduction to alkanes is inhibited by adding quinoline. Thus quinoline acts as a deactivator to increase the selectivity of the catalyst.

Lindlar Catalyst Mechanism

Hydrogenation of alkynes to alkenes involves the presence of molecular Hydrogen (H2) which reduces the alkynes to alkenes. The Hydrogen (H2) atoms get added in pairs to the alkenes where the triple bond of the alkynes gets reduced to a double bonded alkene. But as mentioned before, further reduction to a single bond is generally obstructed. Moreover reduction of alkenes to alkanes is faster than the reduction to alkenes due to which quinoline is added.

Lindlar Catalyst Mechanism

In the above Hydrogenation reaction the hydrogen atom gets added to the same side (cis) of the alkyne and giving rise to cis alkenes through syn addition (Addition of two substituents in the same side of a double or triple bond resulting in decrease of the number of bonds). Both Hydrogen and alkyne are tightly bound to the large surface of the catalyst where the Hydrogen atoms then slowly insert into the triple bond of the alkyne.

Thus Hydrogenation of alkynes is stereoselective which happens through syn addition. Stereoselectivity leads to formation of an unequal mixture of stereoisomers (isomeric molecules having same molecular formula but different three dimensional orientations of the atoms in space). The reaction is generally exothermic.








Adrenochrome is a pigment which can be obtained by oxidation of adrenalin (epinephrine). The anti-hemorrhagic derivative Carbazochrome is used as a hemostatic medication.

Identification of Adrenochrome

CAS number: 54-06-8

PubChem: 5898

ChemSpider: 5687

Synthesize of Adrenochrome

It is synthesized in living organisms (in vivo) by the oxidation of the neurotransmitter hormone epinephrine. It can be synthesized in vitro (experimental biology that uses components of living organism isolated from their original biological context) by using Silver Oxide (Ag2O) as an oxidizing agent.

Adrenochrome Picture
Chemical Structure of Adrenochrome – C9H9NO3

Picture 1 – Chemical Structure of Adrenochrome

Chemical Formula of Adrenochrome

The chemical formula for this substance is C9H9NO3.

Properties of Adrenochrome

Here are some of the basic properties of this substance:

Molecular Mass: The molar mass of this material is 179.17 gm /mol

Density: Its density is 3.264 gm/ cm³.

Boiling Point: It decomposes at temperatures between 115 °C and 120 °C.

Solubility: Adrenochrome is soluble in water and methyl alcohol; however, it is almost insoluble in ether and benzene.

Psychoactive effects of Adrenochrome

According to megavitamin researchers Dr Abram Hoffer and Humphry Osmond, Adrenochrome is a hallucinogenic substance that might be responsible for mental illnesses like Schizophrenia. In the “Adrenochrome Hypothesis”, they said that mega doses of niacin and Vitamin C cures Schizophrenia by reducing Adrenochrome in the brain.

Is Adrenochrome legal?

There have been considerable amounts of controversy over whether it can be categorized as a psychotropic drug as consuming it results in mild euphoria. Buying, distributing and possessing this substance is generally considered legal in the United States. The supplement laws of U.S. regulate its sales as a supplement, while selling it for consumption as a drug or food is controlled by the FDA.

Uses of Adrenochrome

Adrenochrome Monosemicarbazone, also known as Carbazochrome is a derivative of Adrenochrome. It is believed to be able to decrease capillary fragility and to control micro vessel bleeding as well as bleeding from wounds. It is a prescribed medication for cases of haematuria, secondary hemorrhage from wounds, retinal hemorrhage and Hypersensitivity. However, one should be cautious while using this medication for infants and old people. It should not be used during pregnancy unless prescribed by a certified Doctor.







Alprenolol is a non-selective beta (β)-locker and a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. This drug is used for treating angina pectoris-chest pain caused by ischemia. It is also known as Alfeprol, Alpheprol and Alprenololum.

Identification of Alprenolol

CAS number: 13655-52-2

ATC code: C07AA01

PubChem: CID 2119

ChemSpider: 2035

UNII: 877K5MQ27W

KEGG: D07156

ChEBI: CHEBI: 51211


Formula of Alprenolol

The formula for this amine is C15H23NO2.

Agmatine Picture
Chemical Structure of Alprenolol – C15H23NO2

Picture 1 – Chemical Structure of Alprenolol

IUPAC Name of Alprenolol

The IUPAC (The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) name for this drug is 1- (propan-2-ylamino) -3- (2-prop-2- enylphenoxy) propan-2-ol.

Properties of Alprenolol

Following are some of the basic properties of this amine:

Phase: It has a solid phase.

Molar Mass: The molar mass of this substance is 249.34 g/mol.

Melting Point: It has a melting point of 108 °C.

Half-life: 2 to 3 hours.

Uses of Alprenolol

This drug can cause selective β1-adrenoceptor blockade as it functions as a partial agonist. The pharmacology of this drug is similar to Atenolol. It is taken orally for the treatment of angina. It is the chest pain caused by reduced oxygen supply and waste removal due to lack of blood. It is also used for treating hypertension, arrhythmia, ventricular tachycardias and atrial fibrillation.

Pharmacology of Alprenolol

Alprenolol impairs the conduction of AV node and decreases the rate of sinus. It may also be capable of increasing plasma triglyceride as well as decreasing the levels of HDL-cholesterol. This non-polar hydrophobic drug has moderate lipid solubility. Alprenolol has very low intrinsic sympathomimetic activity as well as little direct myocardial depressant activity.

Adverse drug reactions of Alprenolol

This drug may cause various adverse reactions in humans such as:

  • Bradycardia
  • Hypotension
  • Heart block
  • Heart failure
  • Fatigue
  • Bronchospasm
  • Skin rash
  • Pneumonitis
  • Pulmonary and retroperitoneal fibrosis
  • Pruritus
  • Reversible alopoecia
  • Lupus-like syndrome
  • Peripheral neuropathy
  • Sclerosing peritonitis
  • Hematological reactions
  • Muscle cramps

Availability of Alprenolol

This drug is available from the leading pharmaceutical companies.







What is Acrolein?

Acrolein (systematic name: propenal) is the simplest unsalted aldehyde.

It is a chemical that appears as a yellow or colorless liquid and has an unpleasant odor. It is classified under the category of volatile organic compounds.

The substance is also known by other names like

  • Ethanal: 2-propenal
  • Acrylic aldehyde
  • Ethylene Aldehyde
  • 2-propen-1-one
  • Acrylaldehyde
  • Acraldehyde
  • Aqualin
  • Allyl Aldehyde

Identification Facts of Acrolein

The identification facts of Acrolein are provided below:

  • CAS Identification Number – The CAS Identification number of this compound is 107-02-8.
  • IUPAC Name – The IUPAC Name of this substance is Prop-2-enal.
  • Molecular Formula – The molecular formula of this substance is C3H4O.

How Acrolein is produced

The various sources of this chemical substance have been discussed below:

Natural Sources

This substance exists naturally in some pesticides and livestock feeds. It is also produced due to atmospheric reactions of 1,3-butadiene.

Industrial Sources

The substance is industrially prepared by oxidation of Propene. This helps produce several million tons of Acrolein on a yearly basis. Heating glycerol to 280 °C makes it decompose into Acrolein. It is also possible to produce this compound on a lab scale by the chemical reaction of Potassium Bisulfate and Glycerol (Glycerine).

Diffuse Sources

Small amounts of this chemical can naturally be formed in the environment due to the decomposition of some pollutants in external air on combustion of tobacco or gasoline. It is also formed when pyrolyzed vegetable and animal fats are burnt. A natural byproduct of fires, it is one of various acute toxicants that firefighters have to endure.

Structure of Acrolein

The chemical structure of this compound is given as:

Pictures of Acrolein
Chemical Structure of Acrolein

Picture 1 – Chemical Structure of Acrolein

In words, it can be represented as H2C = CHCHO.

Properties of Acrolein

Read on to know all about the physical as well as the chemical properties of this chemical.


The substance has a density of 0.843 g/cm3 at 20°C.

Boiling Point

The chemical is found to boil at a temperature of 53°C.

Melting point

The compound melts at a temperature of -88°C.

Vapor Pressure

The substance has a vapor pressure of 210 mm Hg at 20°C.

Odor Threshold

The chemical has an odor threshold of 160 ppb (370 mg/m3).


It is soluble in ethanol as well as diethyl ether. It is also soluble in 2-3 parts of water.

Specific gravity

The chemical has a specific gravity of 0.8621 at 0°C.


The flashpoint of this compound is found to be less than -18°C by the Open Cup Method.


It is an unstable compound which is stabilized with Hydroquine. It may form unstable peroxides over a period of time.


It is reactive with acids, alkalis and oxidizing agents.


The substance polymerizes to form a plastic solid known as Disacryl in the presence of bright light, strong acid or alkali.

Auto-ignition temperature

The auto-ignition temperature of this compound is 233°C.

Molecular weight

The molecular weight of this substance is 56.06 g/mole.


Its color varies from transparent to light yellow.

pH value

The pH value of this chemical is 7 (Neutral) in 1% soln/water.


The compound is miscible with benzene, ketones and lower alcohols.

Uses of Acrolein

The various uses of the substance are listed as follows:

  • It is mainly used as a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of acrylic acid as well as its esters.
  • This compound is normally used to make pesticides and other chemicals.
  • It is also used an algicide and aquatic herbicide in irrigation canals.
  • It is used in oil wells as a microbiocide.
  • It is used in the production of perfumes and plastics.
  • This substance is used to make colloidal forms of metals.
  • The chemical is used as a slimicide in manufacturing paper.
  • Due to its pungent odor, it is used in methyl chloride refrigerant as a warning agent.
  • The material has been used in poisonous gas mixtures for military purposes.
  • It is also used in water treatment ponds, liquid hydrocarbon fuels and cooling-water towers.

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)s of Acrolein

Read on to know all about the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for Acrolein.


Exposure to this chemical can give rise to toxic consequences for a person. Know how this substance affects the different parts of the body.


The skin can suffer burn injuries on contact with this substance. It can have corrosive effects on the skin surface. There can be itchiness and redness of the skin with blisters and scales developing over the surface.


Exposure to spray mist or liquid form of this chemical can damage the mucus membranes of the eyes as well as the mouth. The eyes can suffer from redness, inflammation, itching and watering.

Respiratory tract

Accidental inhalation of the spray mist or liquid of this chemical can produce acute irritation in the respiratory tract and even lead to its damage. An affected individual may suffer from choking, coughing and shortness of breath. It is an acute pulmonary irritant.


Accidental ingestion of this compound can be extremely damaging for health. The mucus membranes of the mouth can suffer inflammation and irritation and suffer damage.

The substance can have chronic health effects on human beings. This may result in health hazards such as damage to vital organs like eyes, skin, lungs and the upper respiratory tract.

Safety Measures

The following safety measures should be followed in case of accidental exposure to this substance.

Skin contact

In case of accidental skin contact with this chemical, contaminated clothes and shoes should at once be removed. The affected area should immediately be cleaned with a disinfectant soap and flushed under cold, running water for at least 15 minutes. An antibacterial cream or emollient should be used to cover the affected skin region. If irritation and redness fail to subside, medical attention should immediately be sought. Contaminated shoes and clothes should be cleaned and washed thoroughly before reuse.

Eye Contact

In case of accidental exposure of eyes to this chemical, any contact lenses should be removed as soon as possible. Eyes should be flushed with enough water for at least 15 minutes, keeping the lids open. It is always better to use cold water for cleaning.


Victims of accidental inhalation should immediately be transferred to a fresh, airy region. If breathing is difficult, medical attention should be sought and artificial respiration should be provided.


People who accidentally consume this material should not be forced to vomit unless instructed by a physician. Such people should not take anything by mouth. Their clothes and accessories such as shoes, ties and belts should be loosened. Medical attention should immediately be sought for such individuals.

The substance should be stored in cool, well-ventilated and isolated areas. It should be kept in tightly sealed and closed containers away from all possible sources of ignition. Acrolein storage should not be done at above 8°C.

Personal Safety Precautions

People handling this material should wear proper protective gear, comprising of

  • Face shield, for the face
  • Goggles, for the eyes
  • Vapor respirator, to prevent accidental inhalation
  • Gloves, to protect the hands
  • Boots, to safeguard the feet

A variety of this chemical is available for various industrial purposes. Buyers should always purchase the best quality of Acrolein that also suits the need and budget of their business.







Acenaphthylene is an ethylene containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. It is an ingredient used in preparing coal tar.

Chemical Properties of Acenaphthylene

Know all about the chemical properties of this substance:-

Chemical Formula

The chemical formula for this chemical is C12H8.

Boiling Point

The boiling point for this chemical is at 280 °C.

Melting Point

The melting point of this chemical is at 92-93 °C.

Molecular Weight

The molecular weight of this chemical is 152.20 g/mol.


The density of this chemical is 0.899 g/cm3.

Physical Properties of Acenaphthylene

This substance generally occurs as a yellow or colorless crystalline powder.


The substance is soluble in a wide variety of compounds including methanol, ethanol, ether, alcohol, benzene and petroleum ether. It is insoluble in water.


This is a stable compound, though it is not compatible with oxidizing agents.


Acenaphthylene can react violently with other hydrocarbons and can even give rise to explosions. The chemical reacts exothermically with diazo compounds and bases. The benzene nucleus can be changed by a halogenation reaction and acid catalysts. Other factors contributing to this effect are the Friedel-Crafts reaction, sulfonation and nitration. The substance can have a direct photolysis reaction in water under the influence of sunlight. A reaction with carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide can produce a hazardous decomposition.


This chemical is inflammable and prone to causing fire accidents if not stored or handled carefully.


Even though this chemical compound is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, unlike most of its kind, it has got no fluorescent properties.


The molecule of the chemical has a three-ring structure. Two of the rings are hexagonal and one is pentagonal.

Molecular Structure of Acenaphthylene – C12H8

Picture 1 – Molecular Structure of Acenaphthylene

Synthesis of Acenaphthylene

The compound is produced during combustion of natural fibers. It can be produced from 1-Acetoxyacenaphthene (C14H12O2) and 4-Amino-1,8-Naphthalimide (C12H8N2O2). It is a common ingredient in coal tar and crude oil. It is also often produced as an industrial or municipal waste. Coal tar distillation is another way of producing this substance.

Uses of Acenaphthylene

The chemical compound is used in the production of materials like

  • Dyes
  • Pigments
  • Soaps
  • Pesticides (such as fungicides, herbicides and insecticides)

It is also used in manufacturing plastic.

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)s of Acenaphthylene

The chemical is commonly released in the environment by disposal of factory and industrial sewage and waste byproducts. This substance is also produced by coal tar distillation.

Humans are generally infected by this compound by inhalation or dermal contact where the content of this chemical is high. The chemical exists as vapor in the air. Drinking water supplies can also get contaminated by this chemical and prove to be a health hazard for humans. People swimming or taking baths in water contaminated with this chemical can also get infected. This can lead to health disorders such as skin cancer.

Toxicology of Acenaphthylene

Toxicology data on this substance shows that it is harmful to health if it is swallowed or inhaled or absorbed by skin. Exposure to the eyes or the respiratory organs can cause subsequent irritation and health damage. A person might suffer from lung cancer if his or her respiratory organs are exposed to this chemical.

The compound goes through biodegradation in the surrounding environment.

Critical Areas of Acenaphthylene Infection

The areas that are most vulnerable to infection include

  • Lungs
  • Skin
  • Eyes
  • Nervous system
  • Mucous membranes

Safety Measures for Acenaphthylene

Human eyes, on direct contact with this substance, can suffer from irritation. In such cases, the eyes should be splashed with lots of water for at least fifteen minutes. A doctor should be consulted for a checkup.

If the skin gets in contact with this chemical, the clothes should be removed and the infected areas should be washed with water. Medical help should be taken for precaution. The clothes should be washed before wearing them again.

If the chemical is swallowed, a doctor should be consulted and unless recommended by the doctor, vomiting should not be induced.

If this chemical is inhaled, a person should immediately move to a place with fresh, pure air. If that does not help in proper breathing, artificial respiration should be used.

Fire Safety Measures

Toxic gases and irritants may be released during a combustion or thermal decomposition of this chemical compound. Carbon dioxide, dry chemical or foam should be used to put off the fire. A breathing apparatus, approved by MSHA/NIOSH, should be worn while dealing with a fire caused by this compound.

Exposure Safety Measures

Proper safety gear including eyewear, gloves and breathing gear should be used to dispose of any leakage of this material.

Degradation of Acenaphthylene

This chemical can be degraded by biodegrading agents. The bacterium Rhizobium special strain CU-A1 can be used for this purpose.

Oxidation is another process of degrading this chemical. Oxidizing agents such as Ozone and Hydrogen peroxide can be used to degrade this compound.

Thermal Dimerization of Acenaphthylene

The methods of obtaining E-heptacyclene or Z-heptacyclene under the influence of Acenaphthylene thermal dimerization were investigated in a recent study. The conclusions derived from the experiments inferred that acenaphthylene thermal dimerization at 298.15 K is exergonic and exothermic in gaseous and solid conditions.

This is an important chemical used for manufacturing insecticides that are required for domestic purposes. Hence, people are often found to live in close proximity to this chemical. It is thus important to take adequate care so as to avoid any contamination which could result in serious health issues.







Definition of Acenaphthene

Acenaphthene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with an ethylene bridge linking 1 and 8 site.

Other Names for Acenaphthene

This hydrocarbon is also known by other names like

  • Acenaphthylene
  • 1,2-Dihydroacenaphthylene
  • 1,8-Ethylenenaphthalene
  • Peri-Ethylenenaphthalene
  • Aphthyleneethylene

Molecular Formula of Acenaphthene

Its molecular formula is C12H10.

Solubility of Acenaphthene

The solubility of this substance in water is 0.4 mg/100 ml.

Boiling Point of Acenaphthene

The boiling point for Acenaphthene is 279 °C (552 K, 534 °F).

Chemical Facts of Acenaphthene

Some key chemical statistics on Acenaphthene are:

  • Density: 1.222
  • Melting Point: 93.4 °C (367 K, 200 °F)
  • Vapor Pressure: 0.3 (Pa at 25°C)
  • Relative Vapor Density: 5.3 (air=1).
  • Flash Point: 135°C o.c.
  • Auto-Ignition Temperature: > 450 °C
  • Half Life: Biodegradation in Aerobic Soil Varies from less than 10 to 102 days
Structure of Acenaphthene – C12H10

Picture 1 – Structure of Acenaphthene
Source – needpix.com

Other Facts and Identification Features

Some of the other important facts and identification features of this substance are:

  • It appears as white beige in color.
  • This substance exists as a pure ingredient as well as constituent of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixture.
  • It is a component of coal tar.
  • Its alternative name 1, 2-Dihydroacenaphthylene underlines that it is a hydrogenated form of Acenaphthylene.
  • It does not have fluorescence, which is quite contrary to most polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) of Acenaphthene

It is a combustible substance. Its powdered particles can lead to dust explosions with air. There is a risk that on combustion, it could lead to formation of contaminated gases like Carbon Monoxide. This substance reacts with strong oxidants.

Sources of Human Exposure

Human beings are exposed to it by inhalation of its aerosol, skin contact or by ingestion. Its odor detection in air is 8.0X10-2 ppm (chemically pure). Threshold odor concentration in water at room temperature is 0.08 ppm (range 0.02 to 0.22 ppm) with odor low of 0.5048 mg/cu m, and odor high 0.5048 mg/cu m.

This substance has been found in drinking water. It is reported that two of five samples of Nordic tap water in US included Acenaphthene at a concentration of 7.4 – 14.0 ng/l. In an investigation of drinking water supplies in the UK, Acenaphthene was detected at 2 of 14 water facilities.

Health Implications on Exposure

On inhalation, a damaging absorption of airborne particles can be attained rapidly when scattered. Studies have shown exposure to this substance can lead to cancer and adverse effects on the cardiovascular system.

First Aid

In case of inhalation, shift to a place with abundant fresh air and take rest. If your skin has been exposed to this chemical, remove polluted clothes and wash skin thoroughly. For eyes, first rinse with plenty of fresh water (after removing lens) before consulting a doctor. In case of ingestion, rinse mouth thoroughly.

Precautions for Operators

Those working with it are advised to carry their operations under dust and explosion-proof electrical equipment and lighting. For preventing dispersion of dust, use of protective gloves and safety goggles is recommended. It is also important not to eat, drink or smoke while working with this substance. In case of a fire caused by this substance, the situation can be brought in control with the aid of

  • Water
  • Dry powder
  • Foam
  • Carbon Dioxide

Storage Precautions

This substance should be stored in a place away from strong oxidants. There should be adequate fire extinguishers to tackle any mishaps. Also, its inventory should be kept away from drain or sewer access.

Environmental Safeguards for Acenaphthene Toxicity

As this substance is toxic to aquatic organisms, it is important to make sure that Acenaphthene does not enter the aquatic environment as well as over-all environment. It is important for authorities to make sure that drinking water is free from this substance.






Abietic Acid

Abietic acid refers to a yellowish resinous powder, found in rosin from coniferous trees like pine, spruce, and fir. It has a natural occurrence.

Synonyms of Abietic Acid

This acid is also known by other names such as:

  • Rosin acid
  • Abietinic acid
  • Sylvic acid
  • 13-Isopropylpodocarpa-7-13-dien-15-oic Acid
  • (1R,4aR,4bR,10aR)- decahydro-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(1-methyl ethyl)-1-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,10,10a- phenanthrene carboxylic acid
  • (1R,4aR,4bR,10aR)-1,4a-dimethyl-7-propan-2-yl-2,3,4,4b,5,6,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid
  • 7,13- abietadien-18-oic acid

Structure of Abietic Acid

The molecular formula of Abietic acid is C20H30O2. CAS No. of this acid is 514-10-3. Following is the molecular structure of Abietic acid:

Structure of Abietic Acid

Picture 1 – Structure of Abietic Acid
Source – en.wikipedia.org

Molecular Weight

The molecular weight of this substance is 302.45.

NMR Spectrum of Abietic Acid

This acid has the following donor acceptor characteristic:

  • H donor: 1
  • 1H acceptor: 2
  • Rotatable bond: 2
  • Sterocenter: 4

EINECS No. of Abietic Acid

The EINECS No. of this resinous substance is 208-173-3.

Abietic Acid Assay

It has an assay of 97 to 100 %.

Physical Data of Abietic Acid

It appears in various forms such as yellow resinous powder, crystals or chunks.

Boiling Point

This acid has a boiling point of 250° C at 9 mm Hg.

Melting Point

The melting point of this acid is 173° C.

Flash Point

Its flash point is 187°C.

Reactivity of Abietic Acid

It reacts exothermically with both organic and inorganic bases. On reaction with active metals, it produces gaseous hydrogen and a metallic salt. If the solid acid is dry, such reactions are slow.

Solubility of Abietic Acid

This acid is not soluble in water. It is soluble in substances such as:

  • Alcohol
  • Ethyl Ether
  • Carbon Disulfide
  • Chloroform
  • Benzene
  • Acetone
  • Dilute aqueous solution of Sodium Hydroxide

Uses of Abietic Acid

This substance has the following commercial uses:

  • It is used in organic syntheses.
  • It is one of the main ingredients of resin.
  • Rosin Acid Ester is used as an ingredient for the preparation of paints and varnish, soaps, and plastics.

This acid is used as a component of adhesives for food packaging, transporting or holding food.

Earlier, it used to be one of the main constituents of pine resin. It was mixed with CFC-113 and deployed as flux for soldering purposes. Since 1996, the use of CFC-113 began to be restricted due to its supposed harmful effects on the ozone layer.

In healthcare, Abietic acid is used as the following agents:

  • Antioxidant agent
  • Cardiovascular agent
  • Anti-inflammatory agent
  • Emulsion stabilizer
  • Fibrin modulating agent
  • Free radical scavenger
  • Fibrinolytic agent

This acid may be found in solder flux, paper, wood powder and some wart-healing products along with others.

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)s of Abietic Acid


It is a stable acid. This acid is combustible. It is not compatible with strong oxidizing agents.

Irritant to Eye, Skin, Respiratory System and Alimentary Canal

  • It causes irritation to eyes on exposure. It may cause Chemical Conjunctivitis.
  • It is an irritant to skin.
  • It is a respiratory irritant. On inhalation, it can result in Pulmonary Edema.
  • On ingestion, it may lead to gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.

Its chronic effects may be delayed. It can cause Asthma and Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

Irritating properties of this substance may be due to Hydroperoxy and Epoxy oxidation used with Abietic acid products rather than the acid itself.

Data on Toxicity

IVN-MUS LD50 (where IVN=Intravenous, MUS=Mouse, and LD50=Lethal Dose 50 percent kill) of 180 mg kg-1.

Safety Advice

It is advised to avoid contact of this material with eyes and skin.

How to avoid the side effects of Abietic Acid

In case of exposure to eyes, immediately use a wash basin. Flush the eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, intermittently raising upper and lower eye lids. Contact healthcare experts immediately.

If your skin has been exposed to this material, remove the contaminated clothes and shoes. Gently wash the affected skin area with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. Clothes should be washed before reuse.

On ingestion, nothing should be given to an unconscious person. Get medical help. Vomiting should not be induced. If conscious, rinse the mouth of the patient and make him/her drink 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water.

In case of accidental inhalation, move to a fresh, airy surrounding. Seek medical help. Call medical professionals and use artificial respiratory apparatus to breathe in pure air. Oxygen should always be provided immediately to patients suffering from respiratory problems due to inhalation of this substance. Patients should be treated symptomatically and supportively by the physician.






Adamantane is a chemical compound that is quite useful in some technological as well as medicinal applications. Read this article to know more about this chemical.

What is Adamantane

It is a crystalline chemical compound. It is a cycloalkane (alkanes having rings of carbon atoms in their molecular structure) and is the simplest diamondoid (structures having resemblance to diamond). It is for this reason that this compound has been named “Adamantane”.

Chemical Formula of Adamantane

This chemical compound has the formula of C10H16.

History and Synthesis of Adamantane

H. Decker was the first person who, at a 1924 conference, suggested that a Hydrocarbon with the chemical formula of C10H16 and a molecular structure like a diamond may exist. He named this molecule “Decaterpene”.

In the same year, the German chemist Hans Meerwein tried to synthesize the compound by reacting Formaldehyde and Diethyl Malonate under the influence of Piperidine. It was the first laboratory-attempt to synthesis this substance. But instead of the desired product Meerwein got 1, 3, 5, 7-tetracarbomethoxybicyclo [3.3.1] nonane-2, 6-dione. The newfound compound was named “Meerwein’s Ester”. It was later used in the synthesis process of Adamantane and all its derivatives. Another German chemist named D. Bottger attempted to obtain the same compound using Meerwein’s Ester but got another derivative of it.

Vladimir Prelog was the first person to successfully synthesize Adamantane from Meerwein’s Ester in 1941. But the process followed by Prelog was too complicated for regular use. In 1956, the process was refined and simplified but it was still not simple enough for regular use. In 1959, Paul von Ragué Schleyer accidentally discovered a much simpler process to produce this substance.

In this process, Dicyclopentadiene was hydrogenated under the influence of a catalyst (e.g. Platinum Dioxide). Then, the resultant product was transformed into Adamantane in the presence of another catalyst (some Lewis acid like Aluminum Chloride). The substance produced in this process was very affordable.

All the mentioned processes produce a polycrystalline powder (solid composed of many small, almost always microscopic crystals) of the compound. It is possible to create single crystals from this powder.

Structure of Adamantane

Picture 1 – Structure of Adamantane
Source – researchgate.net

Natural Occurrences of Adamantane

Before Adamantane was obtained through synthesis process, Czech chemists S. Landa and V. Machacek isolated this substance from petroleum in the year 1933. It was done with the help of fractional distillation. Petroleum was heated to a point where only solid impurities were left in it. The ensuing steam was sent through a Fractional Distillation Column. The Column temperature decreased because of the steam. As a result, Hydrocarbon fractions condensed all along the Column according to their different boiling points. Only a few milligram of the substance was produced in this process. But the high melting and boiling points of the compound were noticed.

Structure of Adamantane

A molecule of this compound contains three Cyclohexane rings (a Cycloalkane with chemical formula of C6H12). These are organized in the “armchair” or “chair” conformation (form of stereoisomerism).

The length of the Carbon-Carbon bond in the molecular structure is 1.54 Å (Angstrom.1 Å = 1/10,000,000,000 meter). It is almost identical to the carbon- carbon bond in a diamond molecule. The distance between the Carbon and the Hydrogen in the molecule is 1.112 Å.

Nomenclature of Adamantane

According to the systematic nomenclature rule, the right name for this substance should be tricyclo[,7]decane. But International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) recommend continuing using “Adamantane” as its name.

Molecular Weight of Adamantane

The molecular weight of this substance is 136.234 g/mol.

Properties of Adamantane

Following are the basic and physical properties of this compound:

  • It has the physical state of a colorless solid.
  • The melting point of this compound is 270 °C. It is higher than all the other Hydrocarbons with similar molecular weight.
  • The density of this substance is 1.07 g/cm3.
  • The odor of this chemical compound resembles that of the camphor (a white solid with an aromatic smell).
  • This substance is insoluble in water. But it has high solubility in a number of common organic liquids.
  • Water Vapor Distillation process (distillation with the help of water or steam) can be applied to this compound.
  • It has good thermal stability.

Derivatives of Adamantane

Following are the names of some of the derivatives of this chemical compound:

  • 1-Adamantyl methyl ketone (1-Acetyladamantane) or C12H18O
  • 2-Adamantanone or C10H14O
  • 2-Adamantanol (2-Hydroxyadamantane) or C10H16O
  • 1- Amino -3-Hydroxy –Adamantane or C10H17NO
  • 2-Aminoadamantane Hydrochloride or C10H17NHC
  • 1-Acetamidoadamantane or C12H19NO
  • 1-Aminoadamantane Sulfate ( Bis[1-Aminotricyclo (]sulfate) or (C10H17N)2H2SO4
  • 1-Chloro-3,5- Dimethyladamantane or C12H19Cl
  • 1-Adamantanemethanol (1-Adamantylmethanol) C11H18O
  • 1,3-Dihydroxyadamantane (1,3-Adamantanediol) C10H16O2

Adamantane as an Antiviral Medicine

A pure form of this substance is not used in drugs or for other medicinal purposes. The different derivatives of this compound are usually used for the treatment of various diseases. Amantadine was the first derivative to be used as an antiviral drug for the treatment of flu and later for Parkinson’s disease. Some other derivative drugs are:

  • Memantine
  • Rimantadine
  • Dopamantin
  • Tromantadine
  • Vildagliptin
  • Karmantadin

Adamantane polymers have been patented to be used as antiviral drug against HIV. H1N1 or Swine Flu viruses are capable of resisting these antiviral compounds.

Other Uses of Adamantane

Being an unfunctionalized hydrocarbon, the compound is not very useful. The few uses of this substance are mentioned below:

  • It is used in polymer formulations and dry etching masks.
  • Adamantane is considered to be a common standard for Chemical Shift referencing in Solid-State NMR spectroscopy.
  • It is sometimes used to elongate the life of Gain Medium in Dye Lasers.

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)s of Adamantane

This compound can be harmful for humans in case of over exposure. It may cause the following problems for humans:

Eye Irritation

It may cause eye irritation in case of direct contact. In this case, the eyes should be washed with a lot of water. The victim should immediately seek medical consultancy.

Skin Irritation

It may also cause skin irritation. The affected area should be washed immediately with soap and plenty of water. The infected clothes should be removed and washed properly before re-use.

Health problems on Ingestion

If the compound is ingested by accident, the victim should immediately take medical assistance. It is advisable to rinse the mouth and drink 2-4 glasses of water or milk to dilute the material. Vomiting should not be induced.

Respiratory difficulties on inhalation

In case of breathing difficulty, Oxygen must be provided. If the victim is not breathing, artificial respiratory must be applied. Getting immediate medical aid is important.






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