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Category: Barium Products

Barium is a chemical element with the symbol Ba and atomic number 56. It is the fifth element in group 2 and is a soft, silvery alkaline earth metal. Because of its high chemical reactivity, barium is never found in nature as a free element.

Barite

Barite or baryte is a mineral containing Barium Sulfate. Its name is originally derived from the Greek word “barys” meaning “heavy”. This mineral belongs to the Barite Mineral Group along with Anglesite, Celestine and Anhydrite. It has quite a beautiful appearance. This mineral ore is also known as Heavy Spar, Barytine, Schwerspath, Barytite and Baryte. It is the main source of Barium. Aggregates of Barite and sand is called Rose Rock which appears reddish in due to its iron content. It’s commonly known as Barite Rose.

Distinguishing Characteristics of Barite

The unusually high specific gravity of this light colored mineral is the main distinguishing feature. It can also be identified by its insolubility in acid. It can be distinguished from Anhydrite and Celestite by its orange fluorescence and the green flames that results in flame tests. Its crystal shape, cleavages and lack of Fluorite Fluorescence differentiate it from Fluorites.

Composition of Barite

This Barium Sulfate mineral contains:

Barium Oxide (BaO): 65.7%

Sulfur Trioxide (SO3): 34.3%

Barite Picture


Picture 1 – Barite

Chemical Formula of Barite

The chemical formula for this mineral is BaSO4.

Properties of Barite

Here are some basic properties of this material:

Appearance: It has a transparent crystalline appearance.

Color: Its color may vary from colorless to white and light shades of yellow, blue, brown and grey.

Molecular Weight: The molecular weight of this material is 233.4 grams per mole.

Density: The density of Barite is 4.48 g/ cm3.

Solubility: It is almost insoluble in water.

Crystal System: It has orthorhombic crystal system.

Crystal Habit: Tabular parallel to base, fibrous, nodular to massive

Fracture: It has irregular and uneven fracture.

Hardness: The hardness of this mineral ranges between 3 and 3.5 on Mohs scale.

Luster: Barite crystals have vitreous pearly luster.

Specific Gravity: The specific gravity of Barite is somewhere between 4.3 and 5.

Streak: It has white streak.

Tenacity: The tenacity of this crystalline mineral is brittle.

Diaphaneity: It has transparent to opaque diaphaneity.

Optical Properties: Biaxial positive

Refractive Index: nα = 1.634–1.637; nβ = 1.636–1.638; nγ = 1.646–1.648

Birefringence: 0.012

Fusibility: It has fusibility of 4. It produces yellowish-green barium flames.

Mining of Barite Mineral and Ore Locations

It occurs in various depositional environments being deposited through a number of processes like hydrothermal, biogenic, and evaporation. Barite is commonly found in hot spring deposits and lead-zinc veins of limestone. It is frequently found along with hematite ore. This mineral has also been found in meteorites.

It is found in various regions of the US including Cheshire in Connecticut, De Kalb in New York, New Mexico, Tennessee, Georgia, North Carolina, Nevada, Virginia, Missouri, and Kentucky. Barite is found in Baia Sprie in Romania, Westmoreland, Cornwall, Cumberland, Derbyshire, Durham, Perthshire and Surrey in the UK and also in India, China, Peru, Canada, Morocco, Turkey, Ireland, Thailand, Iran, Greece and Brazil. It is found in Barberton Mountain Land in South Africa.

Barite Associate Minerals

This sulfate mineral is often associated with other minerals such as Anglesite and Celestine.

Uses of Barite

This mineral ore has many important industrial and commercial uses such as:

  • A major amount (77%) of the total Barite found is used as weighting agent for drilling muds. The non-magnetic properties of this material make it more useful for this purpose as it does not interfere with the magnetic measurements of the borehole during the whole process.
  • Blue, black, gray or brown Barite is widely used for petroleum well drilling. The applicable Barite color is selected depending on the ore body.
  • This is the main ore of barium metal.
  • It is also used as paint and plastic filler.
  • It is applied for sound reduction in various engine compartments.
  • This mineral is used for making smooth and corrosion resistant coat of trucks and automobiles.
  • It is used in radiation shielding cements and glass ceramics.
  • This mineral also has medical applications. It is used for a barium meal or an upper gastrointestinal series before doing a contrast CAT scan.
  • This mineral was used for producing barium hydroxide for the purpose of sugar refining.
  • Historically it was also used as a pigment for paper, textiles, and paint.

Availability of Barite

There are numerous suppliers of Barite mineral all around the world. These crystals are also available online. The price of the product depends on the amount of processing.

Barite is considered to be among the most useful minerals having various industrial applications. Its wide availability makes it more suitable for different purposes.

References:

http://www.answers.com/topic/barite

http://www.mindat.org/min-549.html

http://www.galleries.com/Barite

http://geology.com/minerals/barite.shtml

http://www.handbookofmineralogy.org/pdfs/baryte.pdf

Barium Chromate

Barium Chromate is an oxidizing agent. The oxidation state of the Chromium in this compound is +6. The Barium ions in the compound produce green flames when heated.

Identification

CAS number: 10294-40-3

ChemSpider: 23481

RTECS number: CQ876000

Production of Barium Chromate

Barium Chromate can be produced by the precipitation reaction of Barium Chloride (BaCl2) and Sodium Chromate (Na2CrO4). The reaction occurs in the following way:

BaCl2 + Na2CrO4 → BaCrO4 ↓ +2 NaCl

Barium Chromate Picture


Picture 1 – Barium Chromate

This reaction produces BaCrOprecipitation which is then collected by filtration.  Sodium Chloride (NaCl) is also produced in this reaction.

Molecular Formula of Barium Chromate

The formula for this compound is BaCrO4.

Properties of Barium Chromate

Here are some of the physical and chemical properties of this material:

Appearance: It is a fine light-yellow powder.

Odor: This compound is odorless.

Solubility: Barium Chromate is insoluble in water but soluble in acids.

Molar Mass: The molar mass of this substance is 253.37 g/mol

Melting Point: This compound decomposes at 210 °C.

Density: Its density is 4.498 g /cm3.

Uses of Barium Chromate

This oxidizing agent is used for many industrial purposes.

  • It is widely used as an oxidizer as well as a burn rate modifier in many pyrotechnic compositions (a substance that produces an effect by light, sound, heat, gas and smoke as a result of self sustaining exothermic reactions), especially delay compositions.
  • This compound is used as a pigment in ceramics, paints, fuses, porcelains and coloring glasses.
  • It is also used for preventing corrosion (as corrosion inhibitor) between dissimilar metals.
  • Barium Chromate is used in safety matches.
  • It is useful in various ignition control devices.
  • This compound is used in metal primers.
  • This substance is used in explosives as an initiator of explosions.

Reactions of Barium Chromate

It is highly soluble in acids. Its reaction with Hydrogen ions produces Ba2+ and Cr2O72- along with two water molecules. Following is the formula for this reaction:

2 BaCrO4 + 2 H+ →   2 Ba2+ + Cr2O72- + H2O

The solubility product constant of Barium Chromate is:

Ksp (solubility product constant) = [Ba2+] [CrO42-] = 2.1 x 10-10

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) of Barium Chromate

Barium Chromate can have hazardous health effects in case of over exposures. It can cause damage to many human organs including kidney, lungs, blood, nervous system, liver and mucus membrane. One should take certain precautions while handling this substance.

Toxicology

This compound can cause serious health hazard in case of inhalation and ingestion while eye and skin contact will result in irritation. Inhaling this material causes breathing difficulty. Severe over exposure can even result in death.

First Aid Measures

Inhalation: The victim should be removed to fresh air. One should loosen any tight clothing such as collar, belt and tie. Oxygen or artificial respiration should be provided if the victim is experiencing breathing difficulty. Performing mouth-to-mouth resuscitation can be hazardous for the person providing the aid. Immediate medical attention is required.

Ingestion: It is not advisable to induce vomiting in case of accidental ingestion of this material. Tight clothing should be removed. One should never give anything by mouth if the victim is unconscious. It is important to obtain medical aid as soon as possible as serious ingestion can even cause death of the victim.

Skin Contact: Victim should wash the contaminated area with a disinfectant soap and plenty of water at once. It is also advisable to apply some anti-bacterial cream to the affected skin. The infected clothes and shoes should be removed and washed properly before re-use. One should obtain medical attention immediately.

Eye Contact: In case of direct eye contact, one should remove any contact lenses and flush the eyes with plenty of lukewarm water at least for 15 minutes. It is important to get immediate medical assistance.

Personal Safety Measures

NIOSH approved dust respirator, lab coats, safety goggles and protective gloves should be used for proper personal protection.

Fire Fighting Measures

Barium Chromate is non-flammable; however, fire fighters should use proper fire fighting gear and protective clothing in order to avoid any direct contact with this compound when extinguishing a fire around it.

Storage Instructions

It should be stored in tightly sealed containers in a well ventilated place away from heat as well as any acids, alkalis, combustibles and reducing agents.Availability

Availability of Barium Chromate

There are many companies who supply this oxidizing agent worldwide. It is also available for online buyers at reasonable prices.

Barium Chromate is widely used in various industries for different purposes. It is quite simple to produce this compound which makes it one of the most useful oxidizing agents for many chemical reactions.

References:

http://www.lookchem.com/BARIUM-CHROMATE-VI-/

http://www.wolframalpha.com/entities/chemicals/barium_chromate/5i/hn/3y/

http://www.sciencelab.com/msds.php?msdsId=9922998

http://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_EN_CB4674975.htm

http://www.espimetals.com/index.php/msds/371-barium-chromate

Barium Iodide

Barium Iodide is a toxic inorganic compound existing both in its anhydrous and hydrated forms. The structure of anhydrous Barium Iodide bears similarity to that of lead (II) chloride.

Identification of Barium Iodide

CAS number: 13718-50-8, (anhydrous), [7787-33-9] (dihydrate)

Formula of Barium Iodide

The formula for Barium Iodide in its anhydrous form is BaI2 while the formula for the hydrated form is BaI2·2H2O.

Preparation of Barium Iodide

Barium Iodide Dihydrate can be prepared using Ammonium Carbonate and Barium Hydroxide in the presence of a Hydrogen periodate reagent.

Properties of Barium Iodide

The properties of this inorganic compound vary in its anhydrous and hydrated forms.

Barium Iodide Picture


Picture 1 – Barium Iodide

Properties of Barium Iodide (anhydrous)

Appearance: it is a white or off-white crystalline powder.

Solubility: This inorganic compound is soluble in water. It is also soluble in ethanol and acetone.

Molar Mass: The molecular weight for this material is 391.136 g/mol.

Density: Its density is 5.15 g /cm3.

Melting Point: It has a melting point of 711°C.

Properties of Barium Iodide (dihydrate)

Appearance: It has the appearance of colorless crystal.

Solubility: It is soluble in water, ethanol and acetone.

Molar Mass: This compound has the molecular weight of 427.167 g/mol.

Density: its density is 5.0 g /cm3.

Melting Point: The melting point of this substance is 740°C.

Uses of Barium Iodide

Both forms of this inorganic compound are used for preparing other iodides.

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) of Barium Iodide

It can cause adverse health effects in both the anhydrous and hydrated forms. There are certain precautions to be taken before handling this material.

Toxicology

This toxic compound can cause skin and eye irritation if comes into direct contact. Accidental inhalation or ingestion of this material can cause serious health problems.

First Aid Measures

Eye Contact: In case of direct eye contact, the victim should flush the eyes with cold water at least for 15 minutes. Immediate medical attention is required.

Skin Contact: If this compound comes into direct contact with the skin, the victim should wash the contaminated area with soap and plenty of water. The infected clothes and shoes should be removed and washed properly before re-use. It is important to obtain medical aid.

Inhalation: The victim should be removed to a well ventilated area. It is important to provide oxygen or artificial respiration in case the victim is experiencing breathing difficulty. One should obtain immediate medical assistance.

Ingestion: it is not advisable to induce vomiting without proper medical guidance in case of accidental ingestion of this compound. Getting immediate medical assistance is important.

Personal Safety Measures

One should use OSHA approved safety goggles, gloves, protective clothes and respirators for personal protection while handling Barium Iodide.

Storage Instructions

It should be stored in tightly closed containers in a cool and dry place.

Fire Fighting Measures

This inorganic compound is non-flammable. However, if fire breaks out around this material, the firefighters should use proper fire fighting gear while extinguishing it.

Availability of Barium Iodide

There are many companies who supply anhydrous and dihydrate Barium Iodide worldwide. It is also available online.

Barium Iodide is an important source for many other Iodides. Its ability to exist in the anhydrous and hydrated forms makes it useful in various fields.

References:

http://www.lookchem.com/Barium-iodide-dihydrate/

http://www.ajay-sqm.com/products.aspx?id=92%7CBarium+Iodide+%28Anhydrous%29

http://www.reflec.ameslab.gov/docs/Barium_Iodide.htm

http://www.wolframalpha.com/entities/chemicals/barium_iodide/4d/48/9j/

Barium Titanate

Barium Titanate is an inorganic chemical compound which is available in a white powder form. It is a ferroelectric ceramic chemical compound with piezoelectric characteristics.

Identification

CAS reference number: 12047-27-7

PubChem Substance ID: 24870427

ChemSpider Reference Number: 10605734

MDL number: MFCD00003447

EC Number: 234-975-0

HS Code: 2841 90 85

Chemical Formula for Barium Titanate

The chemical formula for Barium titanate is BaTiO3.

Production of Barium Titanate

Barium Titanate is synthesized by heating titanium dioxide and barium carbonate.  This reaction takes place through liquid phase sintering. Single crystals of Barium Titanate can be produced at around 1100 °C from molten Potassium Fluoride.

Barium Titanate


Properties of Barium Titanate

The physical and chemical properties of Barium Titanate are listed below:

Appearance

This inorganic compound is available as transparent large crystals and as a white powder.

Molar Mass

The molar mass of this substance is 233.192 g/mol.

Density

The density of this chemical compound is 6.02 g/cm3 in solid state and 6.08 g/mL in liquid state at 25 °C.

Melting Point

The melting point for this substance is 1625 °C.

Hardness

Barium Titanate has a hardness of 5 in Mohs scale.

Photorefractivity

Barium Titanate shows photorefractive properties.

Piezoelectricity

The chemical compound has piezoelectric properties.

Solubility

Barium Titanate is insoluble in water and Alkalis. It is however, soluble in several acids such as Hydrochloric Acid, Hydrofluoric Acid and Sulfuric Acid. The compound can dissolve completely in concentrated Hydrofluoric Acid and Sulfuric Acid.

Structure of Barium Titanate

Barium Titanate is available in powder or crystal forms which have a perovskite structure. The structure of solid Barium Titanate may vary with temperature. They can exist in five different phases, from low temperature to high temperature: rhombohedral, orthorhombic, tetragonal, cubic and hexagonal. Ferroelectric properties are displayed by all the phases except the cubic phase. The cubic phase has octahedral TiO6 centers which defines a cube with Ti-O-Ti edges and Ti vertices.

Uses of Barium Titanate

Barium Titanate has many uses:

  • Barium Titanate can be used as an electrical insulator in its purest form.
  • The compound is used in capacitors as a dielectric ceramic material.
  • It is also be used as a piezoelectric material in microphones and other transducers.
  • Barium Titanate can be doped with certain amounts of other metals like Yttrium, Scandium and Samarium to make it a semiconducting material. As a semiconductor, Barium Titanate shows PTCR properties in polycrystalline form.
  • The Curie temperature for Barium Titanate is 120 °C and spontaneous polarization at room temperature is about 0.15 C/m2. At Curie temperature, Barium Titanate shows an increased resistivity which can vary in magnitude. In this temperature, Barium Titanate may change its phase from tetrahedral to cubic.
  • Single crystals of this compound can show NTCR properties. Polycrystalline forms of the compound shows positive temperature coefficient. Due to this, it is used in preparing self-regulating electric heating systems and thermistors.
  • Barium Titanate crystals are also used in nonlinear optics as it has high beam-coupling gain and can operate at near-infrared and visible wavelengths.
  • Barium Titanate has got the highest reflectivity for materials used in SPPC applications. It is used in continuous four-wave mixing having milliwatt-range optical power.
  • Barium Titanate can be used in photorefractive applications.
  • In frequencies over 40 GHz, thin films of this compound show electro-optic modulating properties.
  • The ferroelectric and pyroelectric properties of this substance are used to manufacture some varieties of un-cooled sensors used in thermal cameras.
  • Barium Titanate powder of high purity is used to manufacture Barium Titanate capacitor energy storage systems that are used in electric vehicles.

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)s of Barium Titanate

Health Hazards

Exposure to Barium Titanate can cause serious harm to human health:

Skin contact: The compound might produce irritation if it comes in contact with the skin.

Eye contact: Exposure of the eyes to this chemical can cause irritation of the eyes.

Ingestion: Ingestion of this chemical can cause irritating sensations in the digestive tract.

Inhalation: Irritation of the respiratory tract is caused by inhalation.

First Aid Measures

Eyes: In case of an eye exposure, the eyes should be flushed with lots of water for a minimum of 15 minutes. The eyelids should be lifted occasionally while the eyes are sprinkled with water. A doctor should be consulted after that.

Skin: In case of a skin contact, a dermatologist should be contacted immediately. The contaminated clothing should be removed immediately and the clothes and shoes should be washed properly before being reused. The infected skin areas should be washed with running water for a minimum of 15 minutes.

Ingestion: In case of ingestion, the victim should be given proper medical attention. Vomiting should not be induced under any circumstances. Nothing ever should be given orally to an unconscious individual. If the victim is alert and conscious, the mouth should be rinsed properly and a few cups of water or milk should be given to the individual.

Inhalation: The victim should be immediately removed to an area of fresh air. Artificial respiration should be used if the victim is not breathing properly. Oxygen supply should be administered if breathing is still difficult. Medical help is needed to ensure the victim’s safety.

Fire Fighting Measures

During a fire break-out, highly toxic and irritating gases may be produced by combustion and thermal decomposition. Hence while firefighting, special MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent) self-contained breathing apparatus having pressure-demand oxygen masks should be used along with full protective gear.

Fire Extinguishing Media: Appropriate fire extinguishing media must be used to put off fire. Water spray, carbon dioxide, foam or dry chemical should be used to handle fire.

Accidental Release Measures

The chemical spills should be cleaned up immediately. Proper protective gear should be used while doing so. The chemicals should be absorbed or swept up properly and placed in a dry and closed container before being disposed. Dusty environments should be avoided and proper ventilation should be provided at the storage section.

Handling of Barium Titanate

The storage sections should be provided with adequate ventilation. Accumulation of dust should be avoided. The containers storing the chemical should be tightly closed. Exposure to the skin, eyes, clothing or inhalation and ingestion should be avoided at all costs.

Storage of Barium Titanate

The containers storing the chemical should be tightly closed when they are not in use. They should be kept in a dry and well-ventilated area and kept away from incompatible materials.

Personal Protection

Adequate protection should be used while dealing with this chemical. Protection gear should include the following:

MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent) self-contained breathing apparatus with pressure-demand oxygen masks.

Safety goggles or protective eyewear approved by OSHA is to be used for protection of eyes.

Protective gloves and clothing is to be used to avoid skin exposure.

Engineering Controls

The areas used for storing this chemical should be provided with a safety shower and an eyewash facility. There should also be adequate general and exhaust ventilation to control exposure of airborne materials.

Barium Titanate is a chemical compound with many uses in various industries and other fields.

References:

http://www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=2280

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barium_titanate

https://fscimage.fishersci.com/msds/58263.htm

http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/ProductDetail.do?D7=0&N5=SEARCH_CONCAT_PNO%7CBRAND_KEY&N4=467634%7CALDRICH&N25=0&QS=ON&F=SPEC

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