Adrenochrome is a pigment which can be obtained by oxidation of adrenalin (epinephrine). The anti-hemorrhagic derivative Carbazochrome is used as a hemostatic medication.
Identification of Adrenochrome
CAS number: 54-06-8
Synthesize of Adrenochrome
It is synthesized in living organisms (in vivo) by the oxidation of the neurotransmitter hormone epinephrine. It can be synthesized in vitro (experimental biology that uses components of living organism isolated from their original biological context) by using Silver Oxide (Ag2O) as an oxidizing agent.
Picture 1 – Chemical Structure of Adrenochrome
Chemical Formula of Adrenochrome
The chemical formula for this substance is C9H9NO3.
Properties of Adrenochrome
Here are some of the basic properties of this substance:
Molecular Mass: The molar mass of this material is 179.17 gm /mol
Density: Its density is 3.264 gm/ cm³.
Boiling Point: It decomposes at temperatures between 115 °C and 120 °C.
Solubility: Adrenochrome is soluble in water and methyl alcohol; however, it is almost insoluble in ether and benzene.
Psychoactive effects of Adrenochrome
According to megavitamin researchers Dr Abram Hoffer and Humphry Osmond, Adrenochrome is a hallucinogenic substance that might be responsible for mental illnesses like Schizophrenia. In the “Adrenochrome Hypothesis”, they said that mega doses of niacin and Vitamin C cures Schizophrenia by reducing Adrenochrome in the brain.
Is Adrenochrome legal?
There have been considerable amounts of controversy over whether it can be categorized as a psychotropic drug as consuming it results in mild euphoria. Buying, distributing and possessing this substance is generally considered legal in the United States. The supplement laws of U.S. regulate its sales as a supplement, while selling it for consumption as a drug or food is controlled by the FDA.
Uses of Adrenochrome
Adrenochrome Monosemicarbazone, also known as Carbazochrome is a derivative of Adrenochrome. It is believed to be able to decrease capillary fragility and to control micro vessel bleeding as well as bleeding from wounds. It is a prescribed medication for cases of haematuria, secondary hemorrhage from wounds, retinal hemorrhage and Hypersensitivity. However, one should be cautious while using this medication for infants and old people. It should not be used during pregnancy unless prescribed by a certified Doctor.
Adamantane is a chemical compound that is quite useful in some technological as well as medicinal applications. Read this article to know more about this chemical.
What is Adamantane
It is a crystalline chemical compound. It is a cycloalkane (alkanes having rings of carbon atoms in their molecular structure) and is the simplest diamondoid (structures having resemblance to diamond). It is for this reason that this compound has been named “Adamantane”.
Chemical Formula of Adamantane
This chemical compound has the formula of C10H16.
History and Synthesis of Adamantane
H. Decker was the first person who, at a 1924 conference, suggested that a Hydrocarbon with the chemical formula of C10H16 and a molecular structure like a diamond may exist. He named this molecule “Decaterpene”.
In the same year, the German chemist Hans Meerwein tried to synthesize the compound by reacting Formaldehyde and Diethyl Malonate under the influence of Piperidine. It was the first laboratory-attempt to synthesis this substance. But instead of the desired product Meerwein got 1, 3, 5, 7-tetracarbomethoxybicyclo [3.3.1] nonane-2, 6-dione. The newfound compound was named “Meerwein’s Ester”. It was later used in the synthesis process of Adamantane and all its derivatives. Another German chemist named D. Bottger attempted to obtain the same compound using Meerwein’s Ester but got another derivative of it.
Vladimir Prelog was the first person to successfully synthesize Adamantane from Meerwein’s Ester in 1941. But the process followed by Prelog was too complicated for regular use. In 1956, the process was refined and simplified but it was still not simple enough for regular use. In 1959, Paul von Ragué Schleyer accidentally discovered a much simpler process to produce this substance.
In this process, Dicyclopentadiene was hydrogenated under the influence of a catalyst (e.g. Platinum Dioxide). Then, the resultant product was transformed into Adamantane in the presence of another catalyst (some Lewis acid like Aluminum Chloride). The substance produced in this process was very affordable.
All the mentioned processes produce a polycrystalline powder (solid composed of many small, almost always microscopic crystals) of the compound. It is possible to create single crystals from this powder.
Picture 1 – Structure of Adamantane Source – researchgate.net
Natural Occurrences of Adamantane
Before Adamantane was obtained through synthesis process, Czech chemists S. Landa and V. Machacek isolated this substance from petroleum in the year 1933. It was done with the help of fractional distillation. Petroleum was heated to a point where only solid impurities were left in it. The ensuing steam was sent through a Fractional Distillation Column. The Column temperature decreased because of the steam. As a result, Hydrocarbon fractions condensed all along the Column according to their different boiling points. Only a few milligram of the substance was produced in this process. But the high melting and boiling points of the compound were noticed.
Structure of Adamantane
A molecule of this compound contains three Cyclohexane rings (a Cycloalkane with chemical formula of C6H12). These are organized in the “armchair” or “chair” conformation (form of stereoisomerism).
The length of the Carbon-Carbon bond in the molecular structure is 1.54 Å (Angstrom.1 Å = 1/10,000,000,000 meter). It is almost identical to the carbon- carbon bond in a diamond molecule. The distance between the Carbon and the Hydrogen in the molecule is 1.112 Å.
Nomenclature of Adamantane
According to the systematic nomenclature rule, the right name for this substance should be tricyclo[18.104.22.168,7]decane. But International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) recommend continuing using “Adamantane” as its name.
Molecular Weight of Adamantane
The molecular weight of this substance is 136.234 g/mol.
Properties of Adamantane
Following are the basic and physical properties of this compound:
It has the physical state of a colorless solid.
The melting point of this compound is 270 °C. It is higher than all the other Hydrocarbons with similar molecular weight.
The density of this substance is 1.07 g/cm3.
The odor of this chemical compound resembles that of the camphor (a white solid with an aromatic smell).
This substance is insoluble in water. But it has high solubility in a number of common organic liquids.
Water Vapor Distillation process (distillation with the help of water or steam) can be applied to this compound.
It has good thermal stability.
Derivatives of Adamantane
Following are the names of some of the derivatives of this chemical compound:
1-Adamantyl methyl ketone (1-Acetyladamantane) or C12H18O
2-Adamantanone or C10H14O
2-Adamantanol (2-Hydroxyadamantane) or C10H16O
1- Amino -3-Hydroxy –Adamantane or C10H17NO
2-Aminoadamantane Hydrochloride or C10H17NHC
1-Acetamidoadamantane or C12H19NO
1-Aminoadamantane Sulfate ( Bis[1-Aminotricyclo (22.214.171.124.3.7)decane]sulfate) or (C10H17N)2H2SO4
A pure form of this substance is not used in drugs or for other medicinal purposes. The different derivatives of this compound are usually used for the treatment of various diseases. Amantadine was the first derivative to be used as an antiviral drug for the treatment of flu and later for Parkinson’s disease. Some other derivative drugs are:
Adamantane polymers have been patented to be used as antiviral drug against HIV. H1N1 or Swine Flu viruses are capable of resisting these antiviral compounds.
Other Uses of Adamantane
Being an unfunctionalized hydrocarbon, the compound is not very useful. The few uses of this substance are mentioned below:
It is used in polymer formulations and dry etching masks.
Adamantane is considered to be a common standard for Chemical Shift referencing in Solid-State NMR spectroscopy.
It is sometimes used to elongate the life of Gain Medium in Dye Lasers.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)s of Adamantane
This compound can be harmful for humans in case of over exposure. It may cause the following problems for humans:
It may cause eye irritation in case of direct contact. In this case, the eyes should be washed with a lot of water. The victim should immediately seek medical consultancy.
It may also cause skin irritation. The affected area should be washed immediately with soap and plenty of water. The infected clothes should be removed and washed properly before re-use.
Health problems on Ingestion
If the compound is ingested by accident, the victim should immediately take medical assistance. It is advisable to rinse the mouth and drink 2-4 glasses of water or milk to dilute the material. Vomiting should not be induced.
Respiratory difficulties on inhalation
In case of breathing difficulty, Oxygen must be provided. If the victim is not breathing, artificial respiratory must be applied. Getting immediate medical aid is important.
It is a chemical used chiefly in the manufacture of Hexamethylene Diamine, which is used widely to prepare nylon.
The CAS No. of this compound is 111-69-3.
Formula of Adiponitrile
The formula of this compound is NC(CH2)4(CN).
Synonyms for Adiponitrile
This compound is also known by other names like:
1,4-Dicyanobutane (Adiponitrile), 99%
Molecular Formula of Adiponitrile
The molecular formula of this chemical is C6H8N2.
Molecular Weight of Adiponitrile
The molecular weight of this chemical is 108.141 g/mol.
Physical Properties of Adiponitrile
Know about some of the main physical and chemical properties of this compound.
Phase : It can be found in a liquid form at STP (standard temperature and pressure).
Appearance : It appears as clear, colorless liquid.
Odor : It is odorless.
Melting Point : 2°C.
Boiling Point : 295°C.
Density : 0.951 g/cm3.
Vapor Pressure : 0.009998 mmHg.
Structure Diagram of Adiponitrile
Following is the diagram of the structure of this compound:
Picture 1 – Structure Diagram of Adiponitrile Source – researchgate.net
Production of Adiponitrile
The electrohydrodimerization of Acrylonitrile (ACN) to Adiponitrile is a widely used electro-organic process for the preparation of this compounds. It can be produced by direct electrochemical hydrodimerization of Acrylonitrile in a medium that contains the compound along with electrolyte salt and water. The medium is passed through pairs of electrodes that are 0.05 to 2 mm. apart.
These days, cadmium cathodes and steel anodes are used in a bipolar cell without membranes. Two-phase recirculating aqueous emulsion of ACN, ADN, a bisquaternary salt (hexamethylene(bisethyltributyl)ammonium phosphate), phosphate buffer, anode anticorrosion additives, borax and EDTA is also deployed. The process of preparation is conducted at a temperature of 55oC (131oF) and density of 2 kA/m2. A portion of the organic phase is continuously removed from the emulsion reservoir for separating the product. The aqueous phase also receives a continuous treatment to avoid organic byproducts and metallic salts accumulating from oxidation of electrode.
This chemical can also be produced from Butadiene. The Butadiene method was pioneered by DuPont and uses natural gas, which makes it sensitive to price fluctuations in natural gas. The Acrylonitrile method uses propylene and is subjected to fluctuation in the price of Propylene.
Uses of Adiponitrile
This chemical is an important intermediate for the manufacture of synthetic fiber. It is used almost exclusively to make Hexamethylene Diamine (HMDA), of which 92% is used to make nylon 6,6 fibres and resins.
Adiponitrile RTECS No : AV2625000.
Adiponitrile Flash Point : 110°C.
Autoignition Point : 550°C.
Refractive Index : 1.438.
Thermodynamic Data for Adiponitrile at STP
Following are some important thermodynamic data of this chemical at STP
Specific Heat Capacity at liquid state: 1.19 j/(qk)
Specific Heat Vaporization: 0.704 kj/q
Specific Heat of Combustion: 40.4 kj/q
Critical Temperature: 780 K
Critical Pressure: 2.8 MPa
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)s of Adiponitrile
The material safety data sheet for Adiponitrile is as follows:
This substance can start a fire and generate irritating or highly toxic gases. Flammable Hydrogen gas may be generated on its contact with metals.
For small fires, dry chemical, Carbon Dioxide, or water spray may be used. For large fires, alcohol-resistant foam can also be used.
It is harmful if inhaled or swallowed. It causes irritation of the eye, skin and respiratory tract. Its absorption into the body may cause Cyanosis, a bluish coloration of skin due to deficient blood oxygenation. On inhalation, it can cause respiratory tract irritation. It can lead to anoxia, marked by symptoms that can range from mild to acute. These include problems like
Irregular heart beat
In worse cases, individuals may enter into coma and even die afterwards.
Its long-term (chronic) health complications can be in the form of Cyanosis, Acidosis and quick shallow breathing.
In case of exposure to eyes, the victim should flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while occasionally lifting upper and lower eye lids. He or she should seek immediate medical help.
In case of skin contact, skin should be splashed with enough water for the same duration. Contaminated clothes and shoes should also be removed and kept away. Seek medical help. Clothes should be washed before reuse.
In case of inhalation, the victim should immediately move to a fresh, airy place. If the victim is not breathing, he or she should be given artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, the victim should be provided with artificial oxygen. Immediate medical help should be sought. Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation should not be used.
Physicians treat such patients symptomatically and supportively.
Users should wash their hands thoroughly after handling this material. Contact with eyes, skin and clothes should be avoided. Empty containers that retain residues of the product can be dangerous.
Containers should be kept tightly closed and away from ignition sources. Ingestion and inhalation should be avoided. The material should be used under adequate ventilation. Empty containers should not be pressurized, cut, welded, brazed, soldered, drilled, grinded, or exposed to ignition sources.
Containers should be stored away from ignition sources as well as from acids.
People using this material should work with appropriate protective eye glasses, gloves and clothing. If exposure limit exceeds or if irritation or other symptoms are experienced, appropriate respirators should be used.
All plants using this substance should be equipped with an eyewash facility and a safety shower. Adequate ventilation should also be there to keep airborne concentrations low.
It is a clear, colorless liquid that is volatile in nature. It is often used as a unit in organic chemistry and industrial products. This substance does not have a common name as per the recommendations of the International Organization for Standardization.
The letter “f” in the name of this substance is an interesting feature. In 1976, it was named as “Carbon Disulphide”. But as per new specifications, ISO now uses the letter “f” in place of “ph” to denote sulfur and compounds of it.
Carbon Disulfide Chemical Formula
The chemical formula of Carbon Disulfide is CS2.
Carbon Disulfide Uses
CS2 is used for diverse purposes like
This substance is used in the manufacture of diverse products like
Electronic Vacuum Tube
As a solvent
This liquid is used as a solvent for substances like
It is also used in purifying single-walled nanotubes of carbon.
It is also used as a pesticide for nursery stock and also in the conservation of fresh fruits. It is also used as a disinfectant in the soil to ward off nematodes (roundworms) and insects.
It is also used for fumigation in grain elevators, bins, airtight storage warehouses, shipholds, cereal mills, barges and airtight flat storages.
Carbon Disulfide Properties
Know about some of the main physical properties of CS2.
In its pure form, CS2 appears as a colorless liquid that is almost insoluble in water. Impure CS2 is yellowish in color.
This substance is inflammable and quickly evaporates at room temperature. It has a vapor density of 2.63.
Pure CS2 emits a sweet odor similar to chloroform. It has an odor threshold that is of 0.05 mg/m3. However, commercial CS2 grades have a foul odor that is similar to that of rotten eggs.
It has a pH value of 7 (neutral).
The vapor pressure for this substance is 352.6 mm Hg at 25 °C. The log octanol or water partition coefficient of CS2 is between 1.84 and 2.16.
Carbon Disulfide Boiling Point
The boiling point (B.P) of CS2 is 46.3 °C or 115 °F. In thermodynamic temperature, its B.P is 319 K.
Carbon Disulfide Molecular Weight
Its molecular weight is 76.14 g/mol.
Carbon Disulfide MSDS
The MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) for Carbon Disulfide is as follows:
This is an inflammable substance that has an auto-ignition temperature of 90 °C or 194 °F. It can be combustible in the existence of open flames and sparks of oxidizing substances. CS2 products may be combustible in the presence of static discharge. The risk of explosion from this product due to mechanical impact is not known.
Small fires from CS2 products can be controlled with dry chemical powders. Large fires from this material need the use of water spray, fog or alcoholic foam.
In case of accidental spillage of this material, handling should be careful. Small spillage can be absorbed with an inert material and properly disposed of. Larger spills should be kept away from open flames, heat or any sort of ignition. It can be absorbed with sand, dry earth or any other non-inflammable substance.
Like any other combustible substance, CS2 should be stored in a safe storage cabinet away from heat or any source of ignition. The container should be tightly closed and kept in a well-ventilated spot that has a cool temperature.
Individuals using this material should wear lab coat, gloves, splash goggles and vapor respirators to prevent any physical damage arising out of exposure to CS2.
In case of a large spill, these protective equipments should be worn along with full body suits and boots. It is also important to use a self-contained breathing equipment to avoid inhalation of this substance.
Carbon Disulfide Lewis Structure
A Lewis symbol is a type of symbol that represents the electrons located in the valence shell of a simple ion or an atom as dots positioned around the letter that symbolizes the chemical element. In this structure, each dot stands for one electron. The most appropriate Lewis Structure for CS2 can be drawn as Bond Order and Bond Length.
** * * ** **
S xx C xx S
The “**” dots should be on top of each “xx” and the top and bottom of each S. The “**” represent the valence electrons of S while the valence electrons of C are symbolized by “xx”. Each atom consists of an octet.
The Lewis Structure is also simply represented as S = C = S.
Is Carbon Disulfide Polar?
CS2 is a non-polar molecule because it has a linear geometric shape with a symmetric distribution of charge. Simply put, there exists a 180° angle between the C-S bonds. This leads to the cancellation of the dipole moments arising due to each of the bonds.
Carbon Disulfide Toxicity
Medical studies show temporary effects on specific organs of the animal body due to chronic exposure to this substance. Some of the common organs are
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Acute exposure to CS2 has resulted in less severe toxic effects in mice, rabbits and rats. In humans, however, acute exposure by inhalation can lead to chest pain and respiratory changes. It is also seen to result in other acute discomforting symptoms like
Changes in mood
Piperazine-Carbon Disulfide Complex
Piperazine-Carbon Disulfide Complex is the name for Piperazine-1-Carbodithioic Acid. The chemical formula for this substance is C5H10N2S2. It is mainly used as an insecticide. This is commonly used to control parasites in stables to protect horses from poisonous insects. Horses do not suffer from any side effects from use of this pesticide.
Exposure to Carbon Disulfide mainly occurs in the workplace. Individuals working in plants or laboratories using this substance should use adequate protective gear to avoid any exposure to this toxic chemical and prevent any health complication.
Carbon Tetrabromide, also known as Tetrabromomethane, is a kind of carbon bromide. Both the names are accepted by the IUCN depending on whether it is considered to be an organic or inorganic compound. This chemical compound is used for different purposes in various industries.
Identification of Carbon Tetrabromide
CAS number: 558-13-4
EC number: 209-189-6
UN number: 2516
ChEBI: CHEBI: 47875
RTECS number: FG4725000
Preparation of Carbon Tetrabromide
This compound can be prepared by the bromination of methane (CH4). The reaction also uses hydrogen bromide (HBr) or bromine (Br2). The reaction between methane and bromine occurs in the following way:
Picture 1 – Carbon Tetrabromide
CH4 + 2Br2 = CBr4 (Carbon Tetrabromide) + 2H2
It can also be prepared in a more economic way using tetrachloromethane with aluminum bromide. This reaction takes place in 100 °C temperature.
Formula of Carbon Tetrabromide
The molecular formula for Carbon Tetrabromide is CBr4.
Physical and Chemical Properties of Carbon Tetrabromide
Appearance: This compound has a colorless crystalline appearance.
Odor: It has a slight distinctive odor.
Density: It has a density of 3.42 g /cm3 in its solid state. Liquid Carbon Tetrabromide has a density of 2.961 g/cm3 at 100 °C temperature.
Solubility: It is insoluble in water.
Molar Mass: The molar mass of this compound is 331.63 g /mol.
Melting Point: The melting point of this material is 91.0 °C.
Boiling Point: Its boiling point is 189.5 °C.
Vapor Pressure: It has a vapor pressure of 5.33 kPa at 96.3 °C temperature.
Structure of Carbon Tetrabromide
This crystalline compound has a monoclinic crystal structure. The molecules of Carbon Tetrabromide are tetrahedral. It means the atoms are arranged in a tetrahedral manner inside each molecule of this compound.
Plastic Crystallinity of Carbon Tetrabromide
The high temperature alpha (α) phase of the Carbon Tetrabromide molecules is called a plastic crystal phase. These molecules are positioned on the corners as well as the center of the faces of the cubic unit cell in an fcc arrangement. Earlier it was believed that the molecules of this compound were able to rotate almost freely (a ‘rotor phase’), which could make them look like spheres after an average time. However, resent studies show them to be restricted to 6 possible orientations (Frankel disorder). In addition, these molecular orientations do not occur entirely independently. Sometimes the bromine atoms of different neighboring molecules come very close to each other leaving little space for independent orientation. This prevents certain orientational combinations between two neighboring molecules. These problems cause significant amounts of disorder inside the crystals of this carbon bromide compound leading to high-structured sheets of diffuse intensity in X ray diffraction. The defense intensity structure provides detailed information about this structure.
Reactions of Carbon Tetrabromide
This crystalline compound is used in the Appel reaction along with triphenylphosphine. Appel reaction is an organic reaction in which alcohols are converted to alkyl bromides. Carbon Tetrabromide is used for this purpose as it shows much less stability than lighter tetrahalomethanes.
Uses of Carbon Tetrabromide
There are many industrial applications of this carbon bromide such as:
It is commonly used as a solvent for waxes, greases and oils.
Carbon Tetrabromide is applied for the purpose of blowing and vulcanization in rubber and plastic industries.
This compound is used as a polymerizing agent.
It also has intermediate applications in agrochemical manufacturing.
It is used as sedative.
This non-flammable material is often used for producing fire resistant chemicals and various photochemical compounds.
Due to its high density, it is used for separating different minerals.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)s of Carbon Tetrabromide
This crystalline compound can cause serious health hazards in case of over exposure. It is important to take proper precautions while handling this material.
This substance can have hazardous health effects in case of eye contact, inhalation and ingestion. It can also cause skin irritation if comes to direct contact. This material can be toxic to different human organs such as lungs, kidney, liver and upper respiratory tract.
First Aid Measures
Eye Contact: In case of direct eye contact, one should immediately remove any contact lenses. It is important to flush the eyes with plenty of lukewarm water at least for 15 minutes. Immediate medical assistance is required.
Skin Contact: The victim should wash the affected skin area with a disinfectant soap and plenty of water. Applying an Emollient can help in reducing the irritation. One should get medical assistance if the irritation persists.
Inhalation: The victim should be removed to fresh air. One should loosen any tight clothing such as collar, belt and tie. Oxygen or artificial respiration should be provided if the victim is experiencing breathing difficulty. Performing mouth-to-mouth resuscitation can be hazardous for the person providing the aid. Immediate medical attention is required.
Ingestion: It is not advisable to induce vomiting in case of accidental ingestion of this material. Tight clothing should be removed. One should never give anything by mouth if the victim is unconscious. It is important to obtain medical aid as soon as possible in case large amounts of this material have been ingested.
Personal Safety Measures
NIOSH approved dust respirator, lab coats, safety goggles and protective gloves should be used for proper personal protection.
Fire Fighting Measures
Carbon Tetrabromide is a non-flammable substance. However, the containers storing this substance may explode when comes to contact with heat. Due to this reason, fire fighters should use proper fire fighting gear and protective clothing when extinguishing a fire around it.
Accidental Release Measure
One can use a shovel to clean this material in case of large spillage. Proper waste disposal containers should be used for disposing of the spilled material.
It should be stored in tightly sealed containers in a cool and well ventilated area.
Availability of Carbon Tetrabromide
This colorless crystalline compound is available in various purity grades. Numerous companies around the world supply this material.
Carbon Tetrabromide is one of the most useful carbon bromides with various industrial applications. The relatively simple production method is one of the main reasons for its wide industrial uses.